Cut-off: 1000/500/300 ng/mL
Amphetamines are a class of potent sympathomimetic agents with therapeutic applications.
They are chemically related to the human body’s natural catecholamines: epinephrine and norepinephrine. Acute higher doses lead to enhanced stimulation of the central nervous system and induce euphoria, alertness, reduced appetite, and a sense of increased energy and power. Cardiovascular responses to amphetamines include increased blood pressure and cardiac arrhythmias. More acute responses produce anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations, and psychotic behavior.
The effects of amphetamines generally last 2-4 hours following use, and the drug has a half-life of 4-24 hours in the body. About 30% of amphetamines are excreted in the urine in unchanged form, with the remainder as hydroxylated and deaminated derivatives.
Cut-off: 300 ng/mL
Barbiturates were first introduced for medical use in the early 1900s. More than 2,500 barbiturates have been synthesized, and at the height of their popularity, about 50 were marketed for human use. Today, about a dozen are in medical use.
Barbiturates produce a wide spectrum of central nervous system depression, from mild sedation to coma, and have been used as sedatives, hypnotics, anesthetics, and anticonvulsants. The primary differences among many of these products are how fast they produce an effect and how long those effects last. Barbiturates are classified as ultrashort, short, intermediate, and long-acting.
Cut-off: 300 ng/mL
The benzodiazepine family of depressants is used therapeutically to produce sedation, induce sleep, relieve anxiety and muscle spasms, and to prevent seizures. In general, benzodiazepines act as hypnotics in high doses, anxiolytics in moderate doses, and sedatives in low doses.
Of the drugs marketed in the United States that affect central nervous system function, benzodiazepines are among the most widely prescribed medications. Fifteen members of this group are presently marketed in the United States, and about 20 additional benzodiazepines are marketed in other countries. Benzodiazepines are controlled in Schedule IV of the CSA.
Cut-off: 300/150 ng/mL
Cocaine is a powerfully-addictive stimulant that directly affects the brain. Cocaine is not a new drug. In fact, it is one of the oldest known drugs. The pure chemical, cocaine hydrochloride, has been an abused substance for more than 100 years, and coca leaves, the source of cocaine, have been ingested for thousands of years.
Cut-off: 50/20 ng/mL
Marijuana is the most commonly abused illicit drug in the United States.
A dry, shredded green/brown mix of flowers, stems, seeds, and leaves of the plant Cannabis sativa, it usually is smoked as a cigarette (joint, nail), or in a pipe (bong). It also is smoked in blunts, which are cigars that have been emptied of tobacco and refilled with marijuana, often in combination with another drug.
It might also be mixed in food or brewed as a tea. As a more concentrated, resinous form it is called hashish and, as a sticky black liquid, hash oil. Marijuana smoke has a pungent and distinctive, usually sweet-and-sour odor.
Cut-off: 300 ng/mL
German scientists synthesized methadone during World War II because of a shortage of morphine. Although chemically unlike morphine or heroin, methadone produces many of the same effects.
Introduced into the United States in 1947 as an analgesic (Dolophinel), it is primarily used today for the treatment of narcotic addiction. It is available in oral solutions, tablets, and injectable Schedule II formulations, and is almost as effective when administered orally as it is by injection.
Cut-off: 1000/500 ng/mL
Methamphetamine is a highly addictive drug with potent central nervous system stimulant properties.
In the 1960s, methamphetamine pharmaceutical products were widely available and extensively diverted and abused. The 1971 placement of methamphetamine into Schedule II of the Controlled Substance Act (CSA) and the removal of methamphetamine injectable formulations from the United States market, combined with a better appreciation for its high abuse potential, led to a drastic reduction in the abuse of this drug.
However, a resurgence of methamphetamine abuse occurred in the 1980s and it is currently considered a major drug of abuse. The widespread availability of methamphetamine today is largely fueled by illicit production in large and small clandestine laboratories throughout the United States and illegal production and importation from Mexico.
In some areas of the country (especially on the West Coast), methamphetamine abuse has outpaced both heroin and cocaine.
Cut-off: 500 ng/mL
MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a synthetic, psychoactive drug chemically similar to the stimulant methamphetamine and the hallucinogen mescaline. MDMA is an illegal drug that acts as both a stimulant and psychedelic, producing an energizing effect, as well as distortions in time and perception and enhanced enjoyment from tactile experiences.
Cut-off: 100 ng/mL
Oxycodone is a Schedule II narcotic analgesic and is widely used in clinical medicine. It is marketed either alone as controlled release (OxyContin®) and immediate release formulations (OxyIR®, OxyFast®), or in combination with other nonnarcotic analgesics such as aspirin (Percodan®) or acetaminophen (Percocet®).
The introduction in 1996 of OxyContin®, commonly known on the street as OC, OX, Oxy, Oxycotton, Hillbilly heroin, and kicker, led to a marked escalation of its abuse as reported by drug abuse treatment centers, law enforcement personnel, and health care professionals. Although the diversion and abuse of OxyContin® appeared initially in the eastern US, it has now spread to the western US including Alaska and Hawaii. Oxycodone-related adverse health effects increased markedly in recent years. In 2004, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for marketing generic forms of controlled release oxycodone products.
Cut-off: 2000/300 ng/mL
“Opiates” refers to any drug that is derived from the opium poppy, including the natural products morphine and codeine, and semi-synthetic drugs such as heroin. The term “opioid” is more general, referring to any drug that acts on the opioid receptor.
Opioid analgesics comprise a large group of substances that control pain by depressing the central nervous system. Large doses of morphine can produce higher tolerance levels, physiological dependency in users, and may lead to substance abuse. Morphine is excreted unmetabolized, and is also the major metabolic product of codeine and heroin. Morphine is detectable in the urine for several days after an opiate dose.
Cut-off: 25 ng/mL
Phencyclidine, also known as PCP or Angel Dust, is a hallucinogen that was first marketed as a surgical anesthetic in the 1950s. It was removed from the market because patients receiving it became delirious and experienced hallucinations.
Phencyclidine is used in powder, capsule, and tablet form. The powder is either snorted or smoked after mixing it with marijuana or vegetable matter.
Phencyclidine is most commonly administered by inhalation but can be used intravenously, intra-nasally, and orally. After low doses, the user thinks and acts swiftly and experiences mood swings from euphoria to depression. Selfinjurious behavior is one of the devastating effects of Phencyclidine.
Cut-off: 1000 ng/mL
Tricyclic antidepressants are commonly used for the treatment of depressive disorders. TCA overdoses can result in profound central nervous system depression, cardiotoxicity and anticholinergic effects. TCA overdose is the most common cause of death from prescription drugs.
TCAs are taken orally or sometimes by injection. TCAs are metabolized in the liver. Both TCAs and their metabolites are excreted in urine mostly in the form of metabolites for up to ten days. The ECO CUP I, ECO CUPII, DIP CARDS and ORAL CUBES Drug of Abuse Test yields a positive result when the concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants in urine exceeds 1,000 ng/mL.
Cut-off: 300 ng/mL
Use this one An analgesic and narcotic drug, C17H19NO3, obtained from opium and used medicinally to relieve pain. Large doses of morphine can produce higher tolerance levels, physiological dependency in users, and may lead to substance abuse.
Cut-off: 10 ng/mL
Buprenorphine is a semi-synthetic opioid that is used to treat opioid addiction in higher dosages (>2 mg), to control moderate acute pain in non-opioid-tolerant individuals in lower dosages (~200 μg), and to control moderate chronic pain in dosages ranging from 20-70 μg/hour. It is available in a variety of formulations: Subutex, Suboxone (Buprenorphine HCl and naloxone HCl; typically used for opioid addiction), Temgesic, Buprenex (solutions for injection often used for acute pain in primary-care settings), Norspan and Butrans (transdermal preparations used for chronic pain).
Cut-off: 300 ng/mL
Propoxyphene (PPX) is a mild narcotic analgesic found in various pharmaceutical preparations, usually as the hydrochloride or napsylate salt. PPX is a prescription narcotic analgesic structurally related to methadone, sold as Darvocet, Darvon, Dolene, Novrad. It is most often combined with aspirin, acetaminophen, caffeine or napsylate to treat mild to moderate pain.
In November 2010 the FDA concluded that PPX caused “serious toxicity to the heart, even when used at therapeutic doses.” Subsequently, the FDA requested that manufacturers discontinue production of the drug. Cardiac arrest has been reported with as little as 35mg. Moderate to highly toxic doses of PPX typically result in delusions, hallucinations, confusion, pulmonary edema and cardio toxicity.
Cut-off: 300 ng/mL
EDDP is the most important metabolite of methadone. It is excreted in the bile and urine together with the other metabolite EMPD. EDDP is formed by N-demthylation and cyclisation of methadone in the liver.
Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is an intoxicating ingredient found in beer, wine, and liquor. Alcohol is produced by the fermentation of yeast, sugars, and starches.
Alcohol affects every organ in the body. It is a central nervous system depressant that is rapidly absorbed from the stomach and small intestine into the bloodstream. Alcohol is metabolized in the liver by enzymes, however, the liver can only metabolize a small amount of alcohol at a time, leaving the excess alcohol to circulate throughout the body. The intensity of the effect of alcohol on the body is directly related to the amount consumed.
Cut-off: 50/20 ng/mL
K2 or “Spice” is an illicit drug that is comprised of a mixture of herbs and spices, typically sprayed with a synthetic compound that is chemically similar to THC, the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana.
The most common chemical compounds of K2 include HU-210, HU-211, JWH-018, and JWH-073. K2 is often marketed in head shops, tobacco shops, or over the Internet as incense or “fake weed.” Unknown product origin and amount of chemical compound on the organic material are just two of the many risks associated with K2/Spice.